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The city of Rome is founded.


Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, is born in India.


Athenians condemn Socrates to death in Greece.


Qin Dynasty unifies China.


Jesus is born in Judea.


The Second Persian Empire (Sassanid Empire) is founded.


The Western Roman Empire ends.


The Empire of Ghana is established in Africa.


Japan's Feudal period begins.


Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztecs, is founded in Mexico.


The United States declares independence.


Israelites create a kingdom. First Temple built in in Jerusalem in 962.


Babylonians destroy the First Temple and Jews begin the Babylonian Exile; Exile ends and Jews begin construction of the Second Temple in 538.


Rome begin to dominate the eastern Mediteranean. The Jewish Kingdom of Judea becomes a Roman province in 6 CE.


Romans destroy the Second Temple when the Jews attempt to regain independence.


The second Jewish revolt ends; Judea is renamed Palestine by the Roman Emperor.


Muhammad begins preaching. Caliph Umar starts the Arab conquests in 634; the Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem in 691.


The Abbasid dynasty founded - from this point on, multiple Muslim kingdoms exist.


Pope Urban II calls for a crusade to recapture the "Holy Land" from Muslims, who had conquered the area in the mid-600s.


The Ottoman Empire is founded.


The Ottoman Empire gains control of the three holiest cities of Islam: Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem.